Interesting thread: This is what Ibn Rushd calls the faqih: one who studies the evidences of the mujtahids. And it is definitely superior to the muqallid who doesn’t know evidences. https://t.co/aTfmeeGFaF— Dr. Shadee Elmasry (@DrShadeeElmasry) July 30, 2019 I do believe that for the illiterate and/or untrained masses it is a real conundrum - and I personally can't think of a very effective solution so long as this illiteracy persists. To me it's beginning to look like the chicken and egg problem - the only solution I can think of is UBE (Universal Basic Education) - which should go hand in hand with UBI (Universal Basic Income). So far as I have seen, for the most part these things hinge on faith/trust - so it depends on what ones' circumstances are and how it shaped their thinking and trust-investment in particular sources of information - a friend, a uni teacher, a (infallible?) pir, a website, an uncle, a cool-looking dude, an over-confident loud-mouth, a smiling shaykh, a cult, a near-cult, translated books available in your local library, whatever happens in Makkah Mukarramah, whoever is winning the argument on islam.stackexchnage.com etc. etc. @muslim-world - your epistemic predilections are seriously messed up! Allah have Mercy on us.