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Discussion in 'Resources' started by Unbeknown, Oct 31, 2017.

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  1. Unbeknown

    Unbeknown Senior Moderator

    Found here and also in ridawipress title, 'Who is Alahazrat?'

    Discussing indexes, Alahazrat says in the preface of the first volume:

    This volume ends with the topic of tayammum. Initially, I thought of dividing the fatāwā in 12 volumes, and each volume containing approximately 800 pages; and the first volume to contain the complete chapter on matters of purity. But, even after 850 pages, only the topics until tayammum could be covered. Hence, it was decided to close this volume here. At the outset, this volume contains only 114 fatāwā and 28 monographs. Yet, praise be to Allāh táālā, there are numerous issues on various subjects and sub-topics discussed in the course of these rulings; and hundreds of key points that may not be found elsewhere. We shall have two main indexes: the first, a topic-wise table of contents; and the second, a list of monographs contained within the volume. This volume contains rulings that mainly pertain to matters of purification/cleanliness, until the topic of tayammum; but in the course of discussing the main topic, and explaining the issue, many sub-topics and related issues are mentioned; from ritual purity to prayer, and then subsequent fiqh topics until [the topic of] inheritance; thereafter, issues other than fiqh, like topics on áqīdah, ĥadīth, usūl, geometry, mathematics etc. Therefore, I think it is appropriate to split the first index into two parts:

    a) Index of main topics, and according to the order of [fiqh] chapters
    b) Index of related and secondary issues mentioned alongside the main topic of the fatwā.


    Indexing as a science is in itself, a fairly modern phenomenon. The Society of Indexers was established by Norman Knight and inaugurated in 1957 and the first issue of its journal The Indexer was published in 1958. The American Society for Indexing, inspired by the SI, was formed about ten years later in 1968-69.

    See http://www.asindexing.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3313.

    1. Norman Knight, in his oft-cited article ‘Book Indexing in Great Britain: A Brief History’, from The Indexer, Vol. 6, p17, 1968, mentioning the pioneering efforts of indexers says:

    Other excellent examples published during that century include The analytical index to the works of Jeremy Bentham (1843), compiled by J. H. Burton, George Birkbeck Hill’s index to his own edition of Boswell’s Life of Johnson (1887)—the Life (1791) had originally been indexed in characteristic fashion by the biographer himself—and the index to Wheatley’s edition of the Diary of Samuel Pepys (1893-9).

    In two of the mentioned works above, indexes for multi-volume books are compiled as a separate volume, Vol.9 in the case of Diary of Samuel Pepys and Vol.6 for Boswell’s Life of Johnson. Alahazrat’s approach to indexing is strikingly similar; even though he was contemporary, one can safely assume that he did not have access to aforementioned works or had any knowledge of such developments. As far as I know, such a detailed topic-wise indexing was practically non-existent in Urdu or Arabic literature at that time, and particularly in books of Fatāwā. Another issue is that an alphabetic index of words in English is much different than a topic index; Alahazrat’s index is therefore, comparable with the second volume of Index to Legal Periodical Literature by Leonard A. Jones, published in 1899, who writes in its preface:

    “The general plan of this volume is the same as that of my Index published in 1888, a portion of the Preface to which is now reprinted. In one respect, however, this volume differs, not in plan, but in result, from the former; and that is, it contains many more references to articles relating to Legal Science in general, and many more references to articles relating to Political Science, to Economics, and to Sociology; for in the years since the former Index was compiled, the Bar Associations organized in many States have published a great number of addresses, papers, and reports upon general, rather than technical, subjects connected with the law; and since that time also there have appeared numerous periodical publications devoted to subjects which have an important, if not direct, bearing upon Law and Legislation”.

    It should be noted that such pioneers were specialist indexers; and Alahazrat was an author who also made his own indexes. The legal index mentioned above was certainly not the work of one man.


  2. Unbeknown

    Unbeknown Senior Moderator

    Translation by abu Hasan posted here.

    Fatāwā ar-Riđawiyyah, vol.24, page 127-133
    Fatwā No.20

    What is the ruling concerning the issue that: Samāá or recitation/singing is permitted for an eligible [ahl] person and impermissible for an ineligible [nā ahl] person. Just as Shaykh Sáadī raĥimahullāh has said:

    na goyem samāá ay birādar key chīst
    magar mustamiý rā ba-dānam key kīst

    I cannot say anything, O brother, about the status of samāá
    Until I see the status of the person who listens to it.
    So, why should the samāá that is prevalent among mashāyikh [sufi shaykhs] in our time which is along with music be impermissible for them, when they are qualified and eligible? it should be forbidden for those who are not qualified to listen to it. [The shaykhs who listen to it do so] because it is nourishment for the soul and they consider it as a form of worship.


    O Allāh, give us guidance towards the truth and the right.

    The differentiation of eligible – ineligible, qualified-unqualified is when the samāá in question is exclusively vocal. [samāá e mujarrad; only voice of the reciter and nothing else]. The couplet of Shaykh Sáadī quddisa sirruh is also about such vocal samāá.

    Concerning music [mazāmīr or musical instruments], there is no question of eligibility or qualification; nor is it allowed for anybody to listen to music. Except for the mesmerised, the enthralled [majdhūb, khud raftah]: those who have lost their mental faculties and are hence not held liable by the Divine Law. And for these [latter] folk, it is not just music – they are not liable for anything:

    sulţāN na-gīrad kharāj az kharāb
    The king does not demand tribute from a wasteland
    In this matter concerning [all] sane people – creating a difference of qualified and unqualified is inciting and emboldening commonfolk to commit sin; and opening the door to the devices of accursed devil.

    Any fāsiq [transgressor, impious man] will then claim that he is among the eligible and qualified folk and it is permissible for him to listen to music, commit a sin openly, assert that a thing forbidden by Allāh is actually permissible and make common and ignorant people like himself to go astray.

    Does the Divine Law of Muĥammad şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam enjoin this kind of a ruling? Allāh forbid.

    The pure sharīáh closes the door to mischief and this categorization [of qualified/unqualified] breaks open a small crevice into a huge hole.

    Do you not see in these days, how many utterly uncultured and uncivilized, uneducated – those who do not even know the basic islamic rulings concerning the toilet on what is necessary, mandatory and forbidden – such a boor wears saffron robes and lets down long hair like women engrossed in this kind of satanic noises [that is music]?

    People forego mandatory prayer [farđ] but they don’t miss the banging of drums; and these people are called as ‘divine’ or the ‘guide’ [pīr o murshid] and people fall to prostration on their feet! And these people openly claim: ‘It is permissible for US. It is pure food for our souls.’

    And all of this is a result of the ignoramuses' classification of 'qualified' and 'unqualified'. [by making this kind of classification when it does not exist, it is emboldening wayward sinners to commit their sins wantonly with the excuse that they are ‘qualified’].

    This blatant lie is laid bare when we ponder that, even in such recitations [samāá] without music in which [the ruling differs for] qualified and unqualified, the ruling of permissibility is ONLY on the condition that unqualified people should not be present in the gathering.
    Ghulam Ali likes this.
  3. Unbeknown

    Unbeknown Senior Moderator

    Someone said:

    Reply by abu Hasan posted here.


    the adab of knowledge is the most important first-step in the path of knowledge. where is the 'big need' for ulama (assuming: 'from the subcontinent') to write in arabic?

    if you want another sharh in arabic to boast alongside devbandis: 'we have written so many shuruH in arabic...' then it is unnecessary. but if it is for a genuine reason - like refuting people like prof.tahir or the devbandi faDayiH so that the world knows of what is happening here in our countries, then such books are necessary on such topics.

    it is my belief, that ulama in the subcontinent should translate to urdu/etc, the already present shuruH of well-known books for the benefit of the ummah instead of writing new shuruH in arabic. (just what mawlana zia'ul mustafa has done below)

    the responsibility of the ulama in the subcontinent is towards their own people and their writing/translations in local languages is more important than writing in arabic, and for a foreign audience.

    why would anyone read a sharh of shamayil in arabic written today, skipping al-qari or al-haytami? unless of course, such a sharh is a direct refutation of the heretic albani's shenanigans or in some way complementary to these aforementioned ones?

    we should never let the prime objective of `ilm go out of focus; knowledge is and should be only for the sake of Allah ta'ala.
    one who seeks knowledge to argue with fools or to be among scholars, or to draw attention of people towards his own self, Allah ta'ala will make him enter fire.

    look at alahazrat's approach - almost all of his books are as a result of some istifta or the other. he was a great writer without a shadow of doubt - his command of the languages, the erudition, an impressive and superb style - unique and exquisite; and an unflinching commitment to the cause and learning/ilm itself.

    it was not beyond him to write volumes on any topic - be it tafsir, hadith, fiqh etc. either as shuruh or as compilations. but he answered the call of duty - of fatwa - rather than do other activities. i am not saying that other activities were unnecessary, but his fatawa were more important at that juncture, than anything else.

    his single work - sub'Han as-subbuH - is an achievement of a lifetime. that one book saved and SAVES the aqidah of muslims to this day. if not, even ulama would fall prey to the befuddling of wolves. even if alahazrat wrote nothing else, except this one book, he still deserved to be called the mujaddid of his time - for annihilating the kazzabiyyah - may Allah ta'ala destroy them and their fitna - and by Allah! they will never be able to answer till judgement come.

    yet, it is in urdu - not in arabic. because the immediate need was an answer in urdu to save the aqidah of the local population. in spite of this being - perhaps the first book fully dedicated to this subject - or remains the only one. wAllahu a'alam.

    such was the way of our ulama.

    Allah ta'ala knows best.
    Ghulam Ali likes this.
  4. Unbeknown

    Unbeknown Senior Moderator

    " know, that the mutazilah parted into 17 factions.

    1. ghaylaniyyah: followers of ghaylan al-dimashqi [1] this faction gathers [heresies] of iytizal and irjaa [2]. it is this ghaylan who was executed by hisham ibn abd al-malik, the seventh khalifah of banu marwan.

    2. waSiliyyah: followers of waSil ibn `aTa al-ghazzal [3] he was the first to say that the sinner [fasiq] is neither a kafir, nor a believer, nor a hypocrite, nor a polytheist. according to this faction, [the Companions] `ali and TalHah raDiyallahu anhuma, if they both bore witness in the same matter, their [combined] witness is invalid. however if each of the two bore witness, such that each of the two had another person with them, then their witness can be accepted.

    3. `amariyyah: the followers of `amr ibn `ubayd. according to them the witness of TalHah and zubayr is absolutely invalid, regardless of the combination.

    4. huzayliyyah [4] followers of abu huzayl [5].according to this faction the Power of Creation of Allah ta'ala has ended and reached such a stage that He cannot create anything new.

    5. naZZamiyyah: followers of ibrahim ibn sayyar al-naZZam.[6] according to this faction, a slave [creation] has power to do things which Allah ta'ala does not have upon His creation. according to them, ijma', lone-narrator reports and analogical reasoning have no legal standing in shar'iah. [laysa bi Hujjah]. however, they do not criticise or speak ill of the Companions nor ali raDiyallahu anhu.

    6. thumamiyyah: the followers of thumamah ibn ashras.[d. 213 AH] he lived in the time of ma'mun. according to them an action can occur even if there is no actor (by whose act the action materialises).

    7. bishriyyah: the followers of bishr ibn mu'ammar ibn `ubbad al-sullami [d. 226 AH]; this faction affirms on the rational soul [nafs al-naTiqah] similar to the belief of philosophers [see plato's tri-partite soul: rational soul, spirited soul and appetitive soul]. and they also attest that bodies can have attributes of being infinite.

    [in two different editions: both my hard copy and a PDF the eighth faction is missing; i suppose this is because of a mixup of bishr ibn mu'tamar and mu'ammar ibn ubbad thus omitting the eighth faction. actually, in milal wa'n niHal of shahrastani, they are two people: bishr ibn mu'tamar with taa, the leader of bishriyyah; and mu'ammar ibn ubbad al-sullami, the leader of mu'ammariyyah; this i believe is the eighth missing in our copies.]

    9. muzdariyyah: [7] followers of abu musa ibn yisa ibn masih al-muzdar [8]. he was the disciple of bishr and the teacher of ja'afar ibn al-Harith [9] and ja'afar ibn al-mubash'shir.[10]

    10. hishamiyyah: the followers of hisham ibn `umar al-quti.[11] he would prohibit from saying: "Allah ta'ala is sufficient for us, and He is the Best Dispenser of Affairs" [Hasbuna Allah wa niymal wakil] because according to him, it is not permissible to use the word 'wakil' for Allah ta'ala.

    11. jaHiziyyah: followers of `amr ibn baHr al-jaHiZ.[12] according to this faction, knowledge is essential by nature and it is not gained by action of [one who acquires knowledge].

    12. jubba'yiyyah: followers of muHammad ibn abd al-Wahhab al-jubbayi.[13] according to this faction that the same accident [`araD in something] can be existent and non-existent at the same time. and thus they described the Divine Speech of ALlah ta'ala.

    13. [not mentioned in either copies]

    14. bahshamiyyah: followers of abu hashim or abu bahsham. abd al-Salam ibn abi ali al-jubbayi.[d. 321 AH] this faction believed in the State of Being [Haal; that is Divine Attributes are states; for example, Samiy is a state; BaSir is a state..] they also consider it possible that Allah ta'ala may punish a slave without his committing a sin.

    15. aHshadiyyah: followers of aHshad ibn abi bakr,[14] the student of muHammad ibn umar al-Saymari. they do takfir of abu hashim [above] and his followers.

    16. khayyaTiyyah: followers of abu'l Hasan abd al-Rahim al-khayyaT [d. 300AH] and he is the teacher of abu'l qasim al-ka'abi [15]. this faction says, that a body which was non-existent [`adam] is a body; so much that they say "a rider on a horse [both] non-existent." is a thing [16].

    17. Husayniyyah: followers of abu'l Husayn ali ibn Muhammad al-baSri. he is the disciple of qaDi abd al-Jabbar ibn aHmad. thereafter, he opposed him and rejected the doctrine of "states" and "non-existent" and "meaning" and accepted that miracles of the friends of Allah [karamat al-awliya] and refuted the muridiyyah; though he was non-commital about the Divine Attributes of 'Hearing' and 'Seeing'. most of these factions of the mutazilah [died away and] didn't remain until our time except these two factions of abu hashim [see #14 above] and abu'l Husayn al-baSri [#17 above].

    end of razi's text."

    Posted by abu Hasan.

    Read the complete post here.
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