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Discussion in 'Resources' started by Unbeknown, Sep 18, 2016.

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  1. Unbeknown

    Unbeknown Senior Moderator

    " know, that the mutazilah parted into 17 factions.

    1. ghaylaniyyah: followers of ghaylan al-dimashqi [1] this faction gathers [heresies] of iytizal and irjaa [2]. it is this ghaylan who was executed by hisham ibn abd al-malik, the seventh khalifah of banu marwan.

    2. waSiliyyah: followers of waSil ibn `aTa al-ghazzal [3] he was the first to say that the sinner [fasiq] is neither a kafir, nor a believer, nor a hypocrite, nor a polytheist. according to this faction, [the Companions] `ali and TalHah raDiyallahu anhuma, if they both bore witness in the same matter, their [combined] witness is invalid. however if each of the two bore witness, such that each of the two had another person with them, then their witness can be accepted.

    3. `amariyyah: the followers of `amr ibn `ubayd. according to them the witness of TalHah and zubayr is absolutely invalid, regardless of the combination.

    4. huzayliyyah [4] followers of abu huzayl [5].according to this faction the Power of Creation of Allah ta'ala has ended and reached such a stage that He cannot create anything new.

    5. naZZamiyyah: followers of ibrahim ibn sayyar al-naZZam.[6] according to this faction, a slave [creation] has power to do things which Allah ta'ala does not have upon His creation. according to them, ijma', lone-narrator reports and analogical reasoning have no legal standing in shar'iah. [laysa bi Hujjah]. however, they do not criticise or speak ill of the Companions nor ali raDiyallahu anhu.

    6. thumamiyyah: the followers of thumamah ibn ashras.[d. 213 AH] he lived in the time of ma'mun. according to them an action can occur even if there is no actor (by whose act the action materialises).

    7. bishriyyah: the followers of bishr ibn mu'ammar ibn `ubbad al-sullami [d. 226 AH]; this faction affirms on the rational soul [nafs al-naTiqah] similar to the belief of philosophers [see plato's tri-partite soul: rational soul, spirited soul and appetitive soul]. and they also attest that bodies can have attributes of being infinite.

    [in two different editions: both my hard copy and a PDF the eighth faction is missing; i suppose this is because of a mixup of bishr ibn mu'tamar and mu'ammar ibn ubbad thus omitting the eighth faction. actually, in milal wa'n niHal of shahrastani, they are two people: bishr ibn mu'tamar with taa, the leader of bishriyyah; and mu'ammar ibn ubbad al-sullami, the leader of mu'ammariyyah; this i believe is the eighth missing in our copies.]

    9. muzdariyyah: [7] followers of abu musa ibn yisa ibn masih al-muzdar [8]. he was the disciple of bishr and the teacher of ja'afar ibn al-Harith [9] and ja'afar ibn al-mubash'shir.[10]

    10. hishamiyyah: the followers of hisham ibn `umar al-quti.[11] he would prohibit from saying: "Allah ta'ala is sufficient for us, and He is the Best Dispenser of Affairs" [Hasbuna Allah wa niymal wakil] because according to him, it is not permissible to use the word 'wakil' for Allah ta'ala.

    11. jaHiziyyah: followers of `amr ibn baHr al-jaHiZ.[12] according to this faction, knowledge is essential by nature and it is not gained by action of [one who acquires knowledge].

    12. jubba'yiyyah: followers of muHammad ibn abd al-Wahhab al-jubbayi.[13] according to this faction that the same accident [`araD in something] can be existent and non-existent at the same time. and thus they described the Divine Speech of ALlah ta'ala.

    13. [not mentioned in either copies]

    14. bahshamiyyah: followers of abu hashim or abu bahsham. abd al-Salam ibn abi ali al-jubbayi.[d. 321 AH] this faction believed in the State of Being [Haal; that is Divine Attributes are states; for example, Samiy is a state; BaSir is a state..] they also consider it possible that Allah ta'ala may punish a slave without his committing a sin.

    15. aHshadiyyah: followers of aHshad ibn abi bakr,[14] the student of muHammad ibn umar al-Saymari. they do takfir of abu hashim [above] and his followers.

    16. khayyaTiyyah: followers of abu'l Hasan abd al-Rahim al-khayyaT [d. 300AH] and he is the teacher of abu'l qasim al-ka'abi [15]. this faction says, that a body which was non-existent [`adam] is a body; so much that they say "a rider on a horse [both] non-existent." is a thing [16].

    17. Husayniyyah: followers of abu'l Husayn ali ibn Muhammad al-baSri. he is the disciple of qaDi abd al-Jabbar ibn aHmad. thereafter, he opposed him and rejected the doctrine of "states" and "non-existent" and "meaning" and accepted that miracles of the friends of Allah [karamat al-awliya] and refuted the muridiyyah; though he was non-commital about the Divine Attributes of 'Hearing' and 'Seeing'. most of these factions of the mutazilah [died away and] didn't remain until our time except these two factions of abu hashim [see #14 above] and abu'l Husayn al-baSri [#17 above].

    end of razi's text."

    Posted by abu Hasan.

    Read the complete post here.
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