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Discussion in 'Language Notes' started by naqshbandijamaati, May 20, 2007.
can you translate the entry on the word "qibla" from the mufradat please?
you can download mufradat from http://www.ansaralhusain.net/maaref_get_book.php?get=872
Imām Rāghib [Mufradāt]
<o></o>şaĥib, as-şāĥīb: accompanied; companion.
anyone who accompanies – whether a human, or an animal, or a place, or a time; there is no difference whether such a company is physical – which is the fundamental meaning – or by closeness of spirit or in imagination. [ínāyah, himmah]
hence it is said:
la in ghibta án áynī
la mā ghibta án qalbī
even if you are hidden from my eyes,
thou art not veiled from my heart
in common usage [al-úrf], this does not apply to anyone except who has very frequently accompanied [another].
also, [şāĥib] is used for the owner of a thing who is, its şāĥib or master. similarly, those who exercise authority, or can dispense in a thing are its ‘masters’ or ‘lords’.
Allāh táālā says:
‘when he told his companion, do not be sad’ [tawbah, 9:40]
‘and his companion said arguing with him...’ [kahf 18:37]
‘did you suppose that the dwellers [şāĥib, pl.aş’ĥāb] of the cave and the inscription..’ [kahf 18:9]
‘the people of madyan’ [hajj, 22:44]
‘the people of paradise, and they shall dwell in it forever’ [baqarah, 2:82]
‘the people of hell, and they shall dwell in it forever’ [baqarah, 2:81]
‘among the people [who shall be tormented by] fire’ [fatir, 35:6]
as for the verse: ‘and we did not make the guardians of fire except angels’, [muddathir, 74:31] here companions means custodians [muwakkilīn] as we mentioned earlier [aH: those who can dispense in a thing are also termed as its masters or companions].
this can be in relation to subordinates meaning ‘master’ as in master of the army [şāĥibu’l jaysh] or in relation to superiors meaning ‘companion’ or an ‘aide’ as in aide-de-camp to the leader. [şāĥibu’l amīr].
al-muşāĥabah and al-işţiĥāb meaning companionship is more extensive than [the word] meeting [al-ijtimá]. because companionship requires one to remain together for a long time; therefore every companionship [işţiĥāb] is surely a meeting [ijtimá]; but not every meeting [ijtimá] can be termed companionship [işţiĥāb].
and the verse:
‘be not like him, who remained in the [company of the] whale’ [qalam, 68:48]
and the verse:
‘and your companion/master does not have any madness’ [aárāf, 7:84]
the prophet şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam was described as their [the meccans] companion to emphasize this fact. because, they remained in his company, tested him, knew him well – both his exterior and internal affairs and they did not find any madness or insanity.
similar is the verse:
‘and your master/companion is not insane’ [takwīr, 81:22]
al-işĥāb, being an associate of something means to surrender [al-inqiyād] to that thing; which is derived from the fact that such a person becomes an [eternal] companion. it is said that a certain person is aşĥab when his son grows up and becomes his associate. and when a person is said to be aşĥab of another, it means he has been made the latter's associate, companion.
as the verse says:
‘and they do not find companions from us [anbiya, 21:43]’ that is, they [the infidels] do not have any thing from Us [Allāh] that can comfort them or give them reprieve or give them succor similar to that which is given as company [yuş’ĥibuhu] to His friends.
adīmun muş’ĥab means [animal] leather with its fur intact [that is the hair on the leather has not been shaven like we use carpets etc].