He sent Shirley to Italy, Spain and England in order to create a pact against the Ottomans (a tour which also led to his mention as "the Sophy" in Act 2 Scene 5 and Act 3 Scene 4 of Shakespeare's 1601 play Twelfth Night and Act 2 Scene 1 of his 1598 The Merchant of Venice). According to the Encyclopedia of World Biography, “ His power was more absolute than that of the sultan of Turkey. While the sultan was limited by the dictates of the Moslem religious laws as interpreted by the chief religious leader of the realm, the Shii Safavids were not so limited. Theirs was a theocracy in which the shah, as representative of the hidden imam, had absolute temporal and spiritual powers. He was called the Morshed-e Kamel ("most perfect leader") and as such could not do wrong. He was the arbiter of religious law. Later, when Persian kings became weak, the interpreters of religious law, Mujtaheds, dominated the religious as well as the temporal scene." The above shows that the safavids actually aligned themselves with the enemies of Islam, the conquistadors, the inquisitors in Spain, who were killing the muslims in spain and driving them out of their homes, forcibly converting them. This also shows that they were just power hungry dunya mongers. Thier rafiDism was a ploy used by them to advantage towards dunya.