In the Persian book Tashih al-masa'il, which was written in 1266 A.H. (1850), Mawlana Muhammad Fadl ar-Rasul al-Badayuni (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala), one of the prominent scholars of Islam in India, refuted the book Miata Musail by Muhammad Ishaq, an Indian man of religious profession who had sold himself to the Wahhabis. On page 253 of his book, Fadl ar-Rasul wrote, "The recitation of mawlid was not practiced in the first three centuries [of Islam]; it was introduced later. Therefore, the 'ulama' disagreed on whether it was permissible to congregate for a mawlid; their words did not conform with one another's. This disagreement of the 'ulama' has been dealt with in detail in the book As-sirat ash-Shami by Muhammad ibn Yusuf ash-Shami (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala), who passed away in Egypt in 943 A.H. (1536). Yet, only the opposing views are reported and no preference is made in this book. Nevertheless, he quoted many 'ulama' who, had said that congregating for a mawlid was mustahab. He also noted that his master had refuted those who opposed it. If, leaving the majority aside, the mawlid congregation is accepted as permissible on account of a few opposing ones, confidence in many of the affairs of fiqh will lessen," and quotes the book As-sirat ash-Shami: "Hafiz (scholar of hadith) Shams ad-din Muhammad as-Sahawi [d. al-Madinat al-Munawwara, 902 A.H. (1496)] said, 'On [assembling for] a mawlid, there is no report from the Salaf. It appeared after the third century. Every year Muslims give alms and rejoice on the mawlid night. They do charitable and pious deeds. They congregate and listen to the mawlid eulogy recited.' Hafiz 'Izz ad-din 'Ali ibn Asir al-Jazri [d. Musul, 630 A.H. (1234)] said,'Reciting a mawlid renders protection against harms and dangers for a whole year. Blessings and an abundance of rain fall on places where a mawlid is recited throughout the year.' Hafiz 'Imad ad-din Ismail ibn Kathir [d. 774 A.H. (1372)] reported that the amir of Arbil gathered huge congregations for a mawlid in the month of Rabi' al-awwal. Abu 'l-Khattab 'Umar ibn Dihya [d. 633 A.H. (1236)] gave long details of mawlid congregations organized by the amir of Arbil in his book At-tanwir fi mawlidi 'l-Bashir. Many 'ulama', for instance, hafiz Abu Shama [d. 655 A.H. (1266)], who was the master of al-Imam an-Nawawi, praised and lauded this book. 'Abd ar-Rahman Abu Shama's work Al-bais 'ala inkari 'l-bidat' wal-hawadith is full of such praises. 'Allama Saif ad-din ibn Tughrul Beg [d. 670 A.H. (1271)] wrote in his work Durr an-nazim fi mawlidi 'n-Nabii 'l-karim: 'Those who love Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) hold meetings of mawlid on the nights of mawlid. Among them are the great meeting of mawlid in Egypt by Abu 'l-Hasan, who is famous with the title "Ibn Afdal"; that held by Abu 'Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Numan, who was the master of our master; and two others held by Jamal ad-din al-'AJami al-Hamadani and Yusuf ibn 'Ali Hajjar al-Misri. These 'ulama' have remarked that they dreamt of Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) saying that those who rejoiced for him also made him rejoice.'