the famous and uncommon recitations - surah fatir

Discussion in 'Ulum al-Qur'an' started by abu Hasan, Apr 13, 2007.

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  1. abu Hasan

    abu Hasan Administrator

    qurtubi in jamiy li ahkami'l qur'an

    Al-Qurţubī in his tafsīr, Al-Jāmiý li Aĥkāmi’l Qur’ān:
    ...
    ...
    Zamakhsharī said: If you ask, what is the reason it has been recited: innamā yakhsha Allāhu [with raf’] min íbādihi’l ulamā’a [with naşb] – that is by Úmar ibn Ábdu’l Ázīz and also attributed to Abū Ĥanīfah, I say: ‘khashiyah’ here is used as a metaphor [istiáārah]; its meaning is ‘he shall exalt them’ or ‘give them esteem’, just as the magnificent do with those who are awe-struck, enthralled. So, He shall exalt the fearful [of Allāh] among men and raise their esteem.
     
    Last edited: Apr 16, 2007
  2. abu Hasan

    abu Hasan Administrator

    Suyuti in Al-Itqan

    Imām Suyūţī in Al-Itqān vol.1/pg.109
    Sec 22-27: Knowledge of mutawātir, mash’hūr, aĥād, shādh, mawđū’ and mudraj [massive, famous, lone-narrator, rare/exceptional, forged and interpolated reports]
    ...
    ...
    And Makki [Abū Ţālib] said: The reports [of recitation] are classified in three kinds:

    First: It is permissible to recite and whosoever disbelieves in it is an apostate; that which has been reported by reliable narrators and that which is consistent with arabic language rules and the script.

    Second: It is correctly reported by lone-narrators and it is consistent with Arabic language [rules] but is anomalous to the [established] script; this is an acceptable recitation but it is not allowed to recite for two reasons:
    a. contradicting the unananimously accepted recitation

    b. it is derived by lone-narrator reports and not through the massively reported ones and [hence] it cannot be used to establish the Qur’ān.
    If anyone rejects or disbelieves in this kind, such a person is not ruled an apostate even though his rejecting it is deplorable.

    Third: It is either reported by reliable narrators [thiqah] but there is no proof for it either in its agreeing to arabic [language principles]; or reported by unreliable narrators even if it is consistent with the script.

    ----
    Ibn al-Jazry said [where he reclassified into four kinds]:
    Examples of the first kind are too many like māliki/maliki [in Arabic script: مالك ملك], yakh’daúūna/yukhādiúūna.

    Examples of the second are the recitation of Ibn Masúūd and others [wa’dh dhakari wa’l unthā] and the recitation of Ibn Ábbās: ‘wa kāna amāmahum malikun ya’khudu kulla safīnatin şaliĥah
    [*] etc. There is a difference of opinion among scholars about the unanimous agreement of the companions with respect to the [unified] script of Úthmān [rasm al-úthmāni]. There are numerous example of such narrations reported by unreliable narrators and found in collections of rare narrations [kutub ash-shawādh] – most of these narrations are through weak chains.

    Like the recitation attributed to Imām Abū Ĥanīfah collected by Abu’l Fađl Muĥammad ibn Jáfar al-Khuzāýī which was copied by Abu’l Qāsim al-Hudhali; among which is: innamā yakhsha Allāhu min íbādihi’l ulamā’a [Sūrah Fāţir, v.28] recited with the [name of] Allāh with raf’æ and úlamā’a with naşb; Dār Quţnī and a group of scholars have written that it is a forged book and has no basis.

    An example where it is reported by reliable narrators but is inconsistent with Arabic [rules] is rare to the point of non-existence; like some of them reported from Nāfiý ‘máā-ish’ with hamz [while it is usually recited with yā: máāyish].

    Then only the fourth kind remains: which is also a rejected one; that which is consistent with Arabic [rules] and the script but it is never reported [from reliable sources]. It is rightful to reject this kind [compared to others] and severely forbidden to recite it.

    [...thereafter, Imām Suyūţī reclassifies the above in six categories, but the information is the same. Even in this reclassification the recitation of 35:28, is listed as ‘forged.’]

    * the common recitation of the verse is: wa kāna warā’ahum malikun ya’khudhu kulla safīnatin ghaşbā [Al-Kahf, 18:79]
     
  3. abu Hasan

    abu Hasan Administrator

    zarkashi in al-burhan

    Zarkashi in Al-Burhān vol.1/sec.23 under shādh/exceptional, rare recitations:

    The recitation: innamā yakhsha Allāhu min íbādihi’l ulamā’a [Sūrah Fāţir, v.28]; here it is explained that ‘khashyah’ means ‘high regard’ ‘esteem’, and not ‘fear’.

    ----------
    aH:
    the reason is, if the second recitation if taken in the literal sense and using the common meaning ‘fear’ for khashyah, the verse becomes:
    innamā yakhsha Allāhu min íbādihi’l ulamā’a [Sūrah Fāţir, v.28, the sha'dh/rare recitation]
    verily, Allāh fears those who are knowledgeable among His slaves. [literal translation, incorrect]
    máādhAllāh, we seek Allāh’s refuge. so according Zarkashi’s explanation/ta’wīl [also in Zamakhshari’s Al-Kash’shāf] the meaning becomes: ‘Allāh táālā grants high regard and esteem to those who are knowledgeable amongst His slaves’.

    Also note that the word tážīm is used here and elsewhere – like in Qađī Íyāđ’s Shifā – the urdu adaptation of the word means only ‘respect’ but the arabic meaning here is ‘granting an exalted station’ or ‘giving a lofty status’ or ‘holding in high regard’ as befits the Majesty of Allāh táālā. while this is acceptable in arabic, it should be avoided in urdu; for eg: Allāh táālā apne nabiy ki tázīm kartā hai must be avoided; an alternative: Allāh táālā apne nabiy ki ázmat bayān kartā hai can be used.

    fa’afham wAllahu aálam.
     
  4. abu Hasan

    abu Hasan Administrator

    Durr al-Mukhtār:
    It is permissible to recite [in a congregation] from any of the seven [unanimously agreed upon] recitations. However it is better [al-awlā] to not recite the uncommon recitation [in that place], so as to protect the religion of the common folk.
    [aH: because commonfolk may deny it and revile the person, putting their own religion in peril]

    ---
    Radd al-Muĥtār [Vol.1/p.583]:
    [Permissible by any of the seven recitations] rather, it is permissible to recite any of the ten as the scholars of Usūl have said;

    [gharībah/uncommon]: That is to choose a recitation that is uncommon around those parts because some foolish people say [whatever] even if they have no knowledge and thereby fall into sin and misery. An Imām should not induce the commonfolk (public) to do things that harm their religion.*

    They should not recite, for example, the recitation of Abū Jáfar or Ibn Áāmir or Álī ibn Ĥamzah or Al-Kisāyī to protect their religion; because it is possible that they mock it or laugh at it even though all the recitations and their reports are veritable and authentic. Our elders [Ĥanafī Mashāyikh] have preferred [the recitation of] Abū Ámr and Ĥafş reporting from Áāşim [from Tatarkhāniyah from Fatāwā al-Ĥujjah.]


    * which is a common principle ignored by our imams and khateebs across the board
     
  5. abu Hasan

    abu Hasan Administrator

    from Tibyan

    In At-Tibyān, Imām Nawawī writes:
    [Chapter Six, Section: The Seven Recitations]

    It is permissible to recite the Qur’ān according to [any of the] seven unanimously agreed upon recitations. It is not permissible [to recite] other than these seven. Not even the rare and exceptional recitations [ash-shādh’dhah] that are reported from the seven [unanimously agreed upon as mentioned above]. We will discuss further inshāAllāh on how all the scholars have agreed that a person shall be forced to repent [istitāb] if he recites from any of the exceptional/rare recitations.

    further in the seventh chapter he writes quoting Qāđī Íyāđ:
    ...
    ...
    The jurists of Baghdād were unanimous in forcing Ibn Shanbūdh [d.328 AH] the Reciter to repent [inspite of him being] one among the Imāms of Reciters, who along with Ibn Mujāhid is considered as an authority [among the recitation specialists]. He was forced to repent from reciting and teaching the exceptional ones. letter of which are not found in the Muş’ĥaf [the unified script of Úthmān]; they all joined to demand a renunciation and repentance from him. And they recorded it in an official register [sijill*] which he bore witness himself [wherein he recanted, repented, renounced] in the court of the vizier Abū Álī ibn Muqlah [d.328 AH] in the year 323 AH.

    *footnote in my copy of At-Tibyān: see As-Sijill/'The record' in the book: ‘Márifah al-Qurrā’a al-Kibār’ 1/278-279.
     
  6. abu Hasan

    abu Hasan Administrator

    Bismillāhi’r Raĥmāni’r Raĥīm

    innamā yakhsha Allāha min íbādihi’l ulamā’u [Sūrah Fāţir, v.28]
    verily, those who [truly] fear Allāh among His slaves are the knowledgeable.

    ---
    Notice in the verse, the name Allāh is with naşb [and thus, Allāha]; and the word úlamā’a with raf’æ [thus, úlamā’u] and this is how it has been recited in all the famous recitations.

    Yes, there is an exceptional [shādh] narration that is vice-versa: with the name of Allāh being recited with raf’æ [thus, Allāhu] and úlamā’ with naşb [thus úlamā’a] but it is not permissible to recite in this manner and commonfolk should be prohibited/corrected from doing so. In summary, it is not permissible to recite:

    innamā yakhsha Allāhu min íbādihi’l ulamā’a
     
  7. Abu Fadl

    Abu Fadl Banned

    I have heard a clip by Hazrat Mufakkir-ul-Islam on this but do not know how to find it, it was a brilliant explanaition to your question.
     
  8. Ibn Arabi

    Ibn Arabi Banned

    I think you'll also find it is "Allaha" not "Allahu", as Allah is the object of the fear not the subject that fears. However there is one particular recitation with the above [nasb of ulama and raf' of Allah] with the meaning "it is only the scholars who Allah venerates and honours". ws
     
  9. Ibn Arabi

    Ibn Arabi Banned

    the first appears to be more famous (i have not seen the second). The interpretation of "ulama" differs however. Many have said it means those who have the knowledge (light) of faith while the non-Muslims are "juhhal" no matter how much "knowledge" they possess, as saying only those endowed with intelligence will fear Allah and the stupid will not is against the divine mercy. However the other well-known interpretation is knowledgeable Muslims/ fuqaha have true fear of Allah while all others fear Him at a lesser degree. This is why the Prophet said "i am the most pious of you and the most fearful" as he was the most knowledgeable. The process works in reverse also: "fear Allah and Allah will teach you" (2:282)
     
  10. Aqdas

    Aqdas Staff Member

    i have heard two translations/tafsir of this verse:

    innamā yakhsha Allāha min íbādihi’l ulamā’u

    [1] only the 'ulama fear Allah
    [2] the 'ulama fear only Allah

    which is more correct?
     
    Last edited: Apr 13, 2007

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