Wajib-ul-wujood and Mumkin-ul wujood

Discussion in 'Aqidah/Kalam' started by abu Hasan, Apr 5, 2005.

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  1. abu Hasan

    abu Hasan Administrator

    the third - impossible to exist - is also named as 'mumtani`y al wujud' in texts.

    existence, or wujûd as they say are three: wâjib, mumkin, mumtani`y.

    a)wâjib is obligatory and has to exist. it is impossible for a wâjib to cease. only Allâh subHânahu wa ta`âla has this attribute.

    b)mumkin: that which is possible existence. the entire creation is mumkin – that is, it can exist, or cannot. once comes to existence, it can be annihilated or can go back into non-existence.

    c)mumtani`y: is impossible to exist or muHâl. children for Allâh, or another God are impossible to exist. they are mumtani`y. ta`alâ Allâhu `uluwwan kabîra. (it is a question similar to 'what is death?' is death only the absence of life or is it an entity? ibn Hajar al-haytami answers this in fatawa al-Hadithiyah under: 'al-mawt: wujudi aw `adami?)

    imâm riDa says in his couplet:

    mumkin meiN yeh qudrat kahâN, wâjib meiN `abdiyyat kahâN
    HayrâN huN yeh bhi hai khaTa, yeh bhi nahiN woh bhi nahiN

    Haq ye ke haiN `abd e Ilâh, awr `âlam e imkâN keh shâh,
    barzakh haiN woh, sirr e Khudâ yeh bhi nahiN woh bhi nahiN

    how can one ‘mumkin’ have such power, and certainly ‘wâjib’ doesn’t have the attribute of slavery,
    i was perplexed, but that is a grave mistake – he is neither this nor that
    {implying that his power is not like that of Allâh; and naturally, he is not wâjib – he is the slave of Allâh.}

    the truth is that he is the Slave Allâh, and the prince of all creation [the ‘mumkin’ world]
    is he a hidden veil or is he a secret of Allâh? he is neither this nor that.
    {this can two meanings; the first is as translated and the second as an answer to the previous couplet.}

    Allah ta'ala knows best.
  2. abu nibras

    abu nibras Staff Member


    Perhaps the learned members of the forum may explain it better but I found this expalanation by Ustadha Umm Sahl to be quite useful.


    In order to understand this concept we will first have to look at how existence is defined by the Imams of tenets of faith (`aqida). In the Ahl al-Sunna schools of `aqida existence or being is divided into three categories. The first is necessarily existent (wajib al-wujud), which defines the existence of Allah Most High. Allah Most High exists independently through Himself and His existence is necessary for the existence of all other things. None of His creation share in His existence. It is to this category of being that the Sufis are referring when they say "oneness of being (wahdat al-wujud)". The second category is contingent existence (al-wujud al-mumkin). This defines the existence of created things that may or may not exist. Created things have no independent being and their existence is not necessary. Allah Most High brought them into being through His will, power and knowledge and if He willed they would have no existence. Creation only exists through Him giving it being, so in this sense it exists through Him, but doesn't share in His independent, necessary being. The third category is impossible being (mustahil al-wujud), which includes the existence of a co-sharer in Allah's entity, attributes or actions, which is impossible both according to revelation and the intellect.


    abu nibras
  3. Yaseen

    Yaseen Active Member


    Theses phrases are used often by Allama Syed Irfan Shah Sahib when he is refuting claims of shirk against the Ahl-us-Sunnah-something he does very well. I understand the very basic concept but I would appreciate it if one of the many learned members could shed some further light on the concepts. The following is a very good talk on the attributes bestowed by Allah Ta'ala to Rasulullah (Sallahu'alyhi wasalam) delivered by Shah Sahib. (Copy and paste the link in to an audio player):

    Click Here


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