Imam Malik 'alyhi rahma on bid'a-authentic?

Discussion in 'Other Mad'habs' started by naqshbandee, Nov 6, 2011.

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  1. Abu Ibraheem

    Abu Ibraheem Guest

    (just requoting the hadith):

    A bid'ah hasanah is actually classified as a Sunnah Hasanah in this hadith which makes it more intresting. The Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wasallam told us to follow the Sunnah of the rightly guided Kaliphahs. Their bid'ah hasanah are the Sunnah, and any other benificial thing, such as gathering together and reciting darood upon the Prophet sal Allahu alayi wasallam, praying for him, speaking about his birth, his life and rejoicing, this is a Sunnah. We judge a book by its contents, not by the shape of the box.
  2. Abu Ibraheem

    Abu Ibraheem Guest

    Bid'ah According the Understanding of Traditional Islām

    The linguistic meaning of Bid'ah is anything new the previously did not exist. The Shari'ah terminology however means anything that has been introduced into the beliefs and actions of the Muslims that is in direct opposition to the Qur’ān or the Sunnah, or anything that distorts the Sunnah or claims to be better than the Sunnah.

    The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has cautioned us against us against any Bid'ah that opposes the Qur’ān or the Sunnah in the following two ahādῑth:

    The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) “Whoever innovates something in this matter of ours (i.e. the Islāmic Creed) that is not a part of it, will have it rejected.”

    [Sharh ul-Sahῑh al-Bukhārῑ, Fath ul-Bārῑ li-Imām ibn Hajar al-Asqalānῑ, Vol. 5, hadῑth 2697, pp. 425-428. Sahih Muslim bi-Sharh li-Imām Nawawῑ, Vol. 6, hadῑth No. 1718, pp. 256-257]

    The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) also said: “Every innovation is misguidance”[Sunan Abū Dawūd, no.4607.]

    These two Ahādῑth should be understood as every innovation introduced into the Islāmic creed is a misguidance. This is due to the fact that nobody can enlighten us more than the last Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) did. He was the last Prophet and the religion of all the Prophets was completed with him (صلى الله عليه وسلم). Allāh (سبحانه وتعالى) says in the Qur’ān:

    This Day have I perfected your Religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islām As your religion. – Surat ul-Mā’idah (5), ayah. 3

    The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) taught us all we need to know about Allāh, and he also taught us our limits. Nobody can take away from what was revealed to him, nor can they add anything to it. Every creedal formulation unknown to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and is companions that was later introduced is in the fire. Like for example the notion that the Qur’ān was created. This confirmed from the hadῑth where the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

    “Indeed this Ummah will split into seventy three sects and all of them are in the Fire except for one and that is the Jamā'ah”

    In another hadῑth of similar import the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:
    “My Ummah will be fragmented into seventy-three sects. All of them will be in Hell Fire except one”

    They (the Companions) said:

    “Yā Rasūlullāh! which one is that?”

    He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) replied by saying:

    “It is one to which I and my companions belong.”

    This is because the sects invented new beliefs and as a result they separated from the Jamācah. Creedal innovations must be avoided at all costs. One must always seek and then adhere to the known position of the Ahl us-Sunnah wal Jamā'ah.

    There are also innovations of actions, however this is to be treated separately as some innovated actions have been encouraged if they are beneficial and do not contradict the Shari'ah at any point.

    Let us look closely at Imam Shafa'ῑ’s (رحمه الله) understanding of the hadῑth “Every innovation is misguidance – Kulla Bid'ah dalālah”. He said:

    "There are two types of Innovation (bid'ah): the praiseworthy and the blameworthy. Whatever is accordance with the Sunnah is praiseworthy and whatever vies with it is blameworthy...The new matters are of two: Whatever differs with the book of Allāh, the Sunnah, the Athār, or the Ijmā'a, then that is an innovation of misguidance (bid'at ul-Dalālah) and whatever new matter from amongst that which is good and does not differ with anything from that (Qur'ān, Sunnah, Athār, Ijmā'a) then it is a new matter that is not blameworthy" Fath ul-Bārῑ, Vol. 13, Kitāb us Sunnah, pp 370-372

    Ibn 'Abd us-Salām (رحمه الله), another Shafa'ῑ wrote in his Qawā'id:
    Innovation is of five types:

    1. Al-Wājibah: Such as the study of 'Arabic syntax which helps to understand the speech of Allāh and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) because the preservation of the Sharῑ'ah is obligatory (wājib) and nothing comes to us except by that being from the foremost rank of the wājib. Such is the much needed explanation of what is difficult to understand, the codification of the science of Fiqh (Usūl ul-Fiqh) and working to distinguish between the authentic and rejected traditions.

    2. Al-Muharramah: Whatever opposes the Sunnah such as the false innovated beliefs introduced by the Qadriyah, Murjiyah, and the Mushābihah (and any other cult that has innovated something into the creed)

    3. Al-Mandūb: Every excellent goodness that was not established during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). E.g. the gathering for the Tarawῑh prayer, the building of schools, spiritual retreats, speeches regarding the praiseworthy aspects of tassawuf... and anything else done purely seeking the Face of Allāh (
    سبحانه وتعالى).
    4. Al-Mubah: Such as the shaking of hands after the Fajr and 'Asr prayers, having an abundance of assorted foods, drinks, clothes, and a wide house

    5. However some of the mentioned Mubah things can also fall into the 5th category which is disliked (Makrūh) or even not preferred (Khilāf ul-Awlā). (Ibid)

    Imām Abū Bakr al-Ājurῑ (رحمه الله), a Hanbalῑ scholar said:

    “Innovations (in the Creed) are misguidance, being that which opposes the Book and the Sunnah, and differs from the statements of the true believers.” The true believers referred to are the Imāms of the Muslims such as Imām Mālik (رحمه الله), Imām Shafa'i (رحمه الله), Sufyān at-Thawrῑ (رحمه الله), Imām al- Awzā'i (رحمه الله), Ibn al-Mubarak (رحمه الله), Imām Ahmad bin Hanbal (رحمه الله), al-Qāsin bin Salām (رحمه الله) and whoever followed their way. See Kitāb ash-Sharῑ'ah, Vol. 1, p. 236

    Now we have established the difference of blameworthy Bid'ah that opposes the Shari'ah at every point, let us look at some praiseworthy innovations that have served great benefits for this Ummah.

    One such innovation was the compilation of the Qur’ān into the form of a book as done by Zaid ibn Thābit (رضي الله عنه), upon the suggestion of 'Umar (رضي الله عنه) and command of Abū Bakr (رضي الله عنه). Even though Abū Bakr (رضي الله عنه) was hesitant out of fear because this was something the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) did not do, 'Umar (رضي الله عنه) encouraged Abū Bakr (رضي الله عنه) saying “By Allāh, it is good”. See Sahῑh al-Bukhārῑ, Vol. 6, Hadῑth No. 509

    Another example of good innovation was the gathering together of the people to pray twenty units of tarāwῑh prayers behind the Imām in Ramadān. This was done by 'Umar (رضي الله عنه) when he saw that the people had their own separate jamā'ah throughout the masjid. Rather than have a divided Jamā'ah reciting the Qur’ān all at the same time, he knew it would be best to unify them behind one Imām and one recitation. It was even said, “This is an excellent innovation”. See Sahῑh al-Bukhārῑ, Vol. 3, Hadῑth No. 227

    Let us now look at one annual celebrated event that which attracts much controversy from those who do not understand the Shari'ah definition of Bid'ah from a traditional standpoint.

    The celebration of the Holy Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه وسلم) birth.

    This is what Imām Ibn Taymiyah (رحمه الله) has to say:

    "...Likewise, what people have innovated by analogy with the Christians who celebrate the birth of Jesus, or out of love for the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), and to honour him, may Allah reward them for this love and effort. Not for the innovation itself (but the love for the Prophet). To celebrate and honour the birth of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) taking it as a honoured season, as some people are doing, is good and in it there is a great reward, because of their good intentions in respecting the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) - Found in Majmu'a Fatawaa, Vol. 23, pp. 133

    Imām Ibn Taymiyah (رحمه الله) admits that there is reward in celebrating the Holy Prophet’s birth, as it is an act of honouring him. Imām Ibn Taymiyah is not alone in this opinion. Imām ibn Rajab al-Hanbalῑ in his Lata'if al-Ma'arif strongly encouraged people to gather in the month of Rabi` al-Awwal to learn about the Holy Prophet’s birth and life. See Ibn Rajab al-Hanbalῑ’s , Lata'if al-Ma'arif, pp158-216 Therefore, in the Shari'ah, the celebration of the Holy Prophet’s birth falls under the category of praiseworthy Bid'ah, as is recommended (mandūb).

    However, it must be noted that there is a danger amongst the Muslims of today. This danger is the misuse of what is initially a well intended beautiful celebration, downgraded to a judgemental criterion to mete out the "true believers" from the "hypocrites", the "Sunni Muslims" from the "deviants" where somebody who does not partake in the celebration is wrote of as a deviant. This is wrong due to the fact that the celebration of the Holy Prophet’s birth must not be made obligatory, or anyway binding upon the Muslims as the Prophet and the Sahābah, nor the Tab'ῑn never practised this innovation.

    Let us take a lesson from Allāh’s Speech in which He said:

    “We sent after them, Our Messengers, and we sent Jesus, the son of Mary. We gave him the Injῑl and We placed compassion and mercy in the hearts of those who followed him. They have innovated Monasticism. We did not make it obligatory upon them. They invented it to please Allāh thereby, but they did not observe it with right observance. We gave those who believe from amongst them their reward, but many from them were rebellious sinners” Surah Hadid (57) ayah 27

    The first and foremost exegete, Ibn Abbās has this to say in regard to this verse:

    “The Christians built monasteries and cloisters to escape the persecution of Paul, the Jew. Allāh did not make monasticism obligatory upon them. They did not innovate it but to seek the pleasure of Allāh and had Allāh enjoined it upon them they would of not been able to give it’s due. Allāh will reward the monks who did not contradict the religion of Jesus double for their faith and worship. Twenty Four of these monks resided in Yemen and when they heard of the Prophet they believed in him and joined his religion. However many of the monks were disbelievers, vying against the religion of Jesus” See Tafsῑr Ibn Abbās

    The quoted ayah from the Qur’ān along with the explanation of Ibn Abbās shows us that Allāh does reward people for good innovation, however, when they start making it obligatory as something that has to be done in the religion then this becomes a punishable offense. Therefore anybody who celebrates the birth of the Holy Prophet must do so with a pure intention of loving the Prophet and should not make this binding upon other people.

    Taken from an appendix of Lum'at ul-I'tiqaad (The creed of the Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah) by Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudaamah.
  3. Bismillah...

    Assalamualaikum wa Rahmatullah...

    Sorry Sidi, I don't want to come accross as a trouble maker but I was compelled to show that the claim of Group Dua being a Bid'ah of whatever type was baseless...

    As simple as that...

    This is what we have learnt from our teachers, may Allah benefit us from them and you...
  4. Wadood

    Wadood Veteran

    Why did you do that?
  5. Sidi, he mentioned that Imam Malik was against group Dua while I presented a Hadith explicitly encouraging it... That was all
  6. azizq

    azizq Well-Known Member

    Brother, he is not disputing the hadith. He just mentioned the position of Imam Malik(r).
  7. Bismillah...

    Rather the fact is that Group Dua does not come under a Bid'ah of whatever sort since it is an authentic Sunnah, please read my previous post. I will post the relevant part again, for your benefit:

    Habib ibn Maslama al-Fihri (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that I heard the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) say: � No group of believers assemble, one of them supplicating while others saying Am�in, except that Allah answers their prayer� (Recorded by Tabrani in al-Mu�jum al-Kabir, 4/26 & Hakim in his al-Mustadrak, 3/347 and he classed it as authentic (sahih).

    Is this group Dua or not?

    If it is, how is it classified as a Bid'ah of whatever sort?

    Please answer...
  8. isahusain

    isahusain Guest


    The topic of bidah is a vast one, but it suffices to say that there are and have always been differences in understanding such concepts.

    It is widely known that Imam Malik was strict against bidah. Sometimes it may be that he reached the right conclusion, at other times the wrong. He was a fallible man, and we don't claim infallibility for him or any of the Imams.

    Yes, group recitation of the Quran is common practice in some places. This still doesn't change the fact that al-Imam himself was against this. Later ulama differed with the Imam, swollow it and learn to digest it!

    And yes group dua was also considered bidah by the Imam. So was raising the hands while making dua in public considered disliked!

    How later Malikis have chosen to follow other opinions is totally unrelated to the thread, whether such a quote is authentically attributed to al-Imam Malik. I only highlighted some facts to show that even if it is true, it wouldn't be surprising or against what is already well established from the Imam.

    And never did i say that i agree with the Imams conclusions, merely pointed out facts!

    And as for brother Aqdas post, it can not be used in favour of bidah hasanat, as the Hadith has a context, which is more about reviving a Sunnah! Yet it doesn't mean that such a thing as bidah hasanat doesn't exist, merely that people often seem to use the Hadith wrongly.

  9. azizq

    azizq Well-Known Member

  10. Aqdas

    Aqdas Staff Member

    Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466:

    He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect.
  11. Sayyidinah Abu Bakr as-Siddiq decided that the Qur'an should be compiled in a book form. Oh no! Bid'ah in the religion! On a more serious note, you must know that Bid'ah Hasanah clearly exists based on the above examples, as simple as that.

    Sidi Isa Husayn, I am sure you are well aware of the prevelance of the recitation of the Qur'an in a group in the traditionally Maliki countries. No, the majority of the Ulama and Awwam of that country were misguided, would be the typical pseudo-Salafi's answer.

    The point I am getting at is that instead of beleiving everything you hear, it must be analysed, since afterall, the purpose of the intellect was to understand the revealation.

    As for group Dua, what do you mean by that? Do you mean that the Imam recite Dua aloud? If so, what do you say about this:
    Please reply in order to clarify yourself...
  12. isahusain

    isahusain Guest

    Assalamu Alaykum

    It wouldn't surprise me as the Imam and the early math'hab felt that congregational recitation of the Quran and group du'a was bidah.

  13. Yaseen

    Yaseen Active Member


  14. Yaseen

    Yaseen Active Member


    I came across a speech on TV by a salafite who quoted the following:

    Imam Malik stated that he who innovates something in Islam while deeming it to be a good innovation has alleged that Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) was unfaithful in disseminating his message as Allah Almighty says: "This day are those who disbelieve in despair of (ever harming) your religion; so fear them not, fear Me! This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favor unto you, and have chosen for you Al-Islam as religion. Whosoever is forced by hunger, not by will, to sin: (for him) Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful." (Al-Ma'idah: 3)

    How authentic is this statement as it can surely lead to confusion amongst the uneducated masses.


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